Stringent emissions regulations throughout the world are challenging automobile manufacturers to create engines that meet the needs of the environment whilst still producing vehicles that are enjoyable to drive.
Turbochargers meet that challenge and deliver significant benefits to end users:
In standard applications, it is realistic to double the power of a given engine through turbocharging, making vehicles more responsive to drive. Turbochargers also prevent the loss of power at high altitudes, thus providing significant advantages to turbocharged trucks and off-road machinery.
Turbochargers recycle the energy produced by automobile engines, transforming more of the fuel energy consumed into power by creating less wasteful heat and friction. As a result, turbocharged engines deliver significant fuel savings over their naturally aspirated counterparts.
Because a turbocharger delivers more air to the engine, fuel combustion is easier, more thorough and therefore cleaner. Today's turbocharged diesel engines produce 50% less NOx and CO2 emissions than conventional engines.
Turbochargers deliver greater torque, which, in turn, translates into improved performance on the road, making driving a real pleasure.
Think of a Turbo as an integral part of the engine.
Don't always assume the Turbo is at fault when things go wrong
Remember - a new Turbo will not cure a faulty engine!
How A Turbo Works
The principle of turbocharging In order to explain how a turbocharger works we must first look at the four-stroke cycle: The four stages of the cycle – commonly known as Suck, Squeeze, Bang and Blow – are as follows:
Suction (charge exchange stroke):
In a diesel or petrol injection engine, the piston moves down and air is drawn through the intake valve. In a carburettor petrol engine, the air is mixed with petrol.
Compression (power stroke):
As the piston moves back up, the air or petrol/air mixture is compressed.
Expansion (power stroke):
In the carburettor or injected petrol engine, the fuel/air mixture is ignited by a spark plug; in the diesel engine, fuel is injected under high pressure and the mixture ignites spontaneously. In either case, the explosion drives the piston downwards.
Exhaust (charge exchange stroke):
The exhaust gas is expelled through the exhaust valve when the piston moves up. In a turbocharged engine, the air is pre-compressed before being supplied to the cylinder during the suction stroke. Because it is at a higher pressure, a greater mass of air is held in the combustion chamber, which means that fuel is burned more efficiently. This increases the engine’s power output, giving more torque and a higher top speed compared to a normally aspirated engine of the same swept volume, and reduces emissions. Some diesel engines can also be set up to accept more air but the same amount of fuel, which does not increase the power but results in cleaner exhaust gases.
Waste exhaust gas is sent through the turbine side of the Turbo, spinning the turbine wheel. This exhaust gas is then sent to athmosphere. The spinning turbine shaft rotates a compressor wheel, drawing filtered air from the intake system, and compressing it in the turbochargers compressor housing, and after charge air cooling the compressed air is sent to the engines intake manifold for combustion.